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The National electric reliability study : technical study reports

표제/저자사항
The National electric reliability study : technical study reports / United States. Department of Energy
United States. Department of Energy.   
발행사항
Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1981
형태사항
558 p.: illus.; 28 cm
분류기호
듀이십진분류법-> 621.31

권별정보

권별정보 목록
편/권차 편제 저작자 발행년도 ISBN 청구기호 자료이용하는곳 자료상태
United States. Department of Energy 1981 621.31-U58n 보존 서고 신청후이용(보존)
CONTENTS
1. THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY-PAST AND PRESENT = 1
  ABSTRACT = 1
  INTRODUCTION = 1
    PURPA - Section 209. Reliability = 1
    objectives of Section 209 = 1
    Historical Development of Section 209 Requirements = 1
    Organization of Background Report = 3
  UTILITY PERFORMANCE TO DATE = 4
    Introduction = 4
    General Review of U.S. Utility Performance = 4
    The Utility Service Environment = 4
    Performance of the Bulk Power System = 8
    Performance of Typical Utilities = 13
    Comparison of Bulk Outage Data and Surveyed Utility Data = 19
    Customer Outage Data Limitations = 20
    Conclusions = 20
  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE = 21
    Introduction = 21
    Forces Motivating Electric Utility Reliability Design Goals = 21
    Growth of Electric Utilities = 22
    Growth in Power Consumption and Dependence = 24
    Summary = 27
  THE ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM AND RELATED RELIABILITY ISSUES = 27
    Introduction = 27
    Typical Electric Power System Structure = 27
    Types of Power System Problems = 30
    Definitions = 31
    Conclusions = 33
  CURRENT PLANNING AND OPERATING PRACTICES = 33
    Introduction = 33
    Utility Mandate/View of Responsibility = 33
    Bulk Power Reliability = 34
    Distribution Reliability = 36
    Power Pool/Regional Reliability = 36
    Utility Prioritization for Capital Improvements = 37
    Restorative Procedures = 37
    Strategic Reliability = 38
    Utility/Customer Perspective = 38
    Limiting Factors = 39
    Current Reliability Criteria = 39
  THE ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY = 39
    Introduction = 39
    Electric Reliability Criteria-The Traditional Approach = 40
    Determining the "Appropriate" Level of Reliability-A Cost/Benefit Problem = 40
    Reliability Cost Information = 40
    Brief Review of Past Studies Related to the Economics of Reliability = 41
    Utility Industry Current Trends = 42
    Conclusions = 43
2. ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR ACHIEVING GIVEN POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY LEVELS = 51
  ABSTRACT = 51
  INTRODUCTION = 52
  OVERVIEW OF STUDY APPROACH TO THE GENERATION ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS = 54
    Overview of the Approach = 54
    Selection of Two Subregions = 55
  DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD OF APPROACH = 57
    Small Versus Large Units = 58
    Conventional Versus Unconventional Generation = 59
    Centralized Versus Decentralized Siting = 59
  ANALYSIS MODELS = 62
    Simulation Models = 62
    Plannina Models = 63
  CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALTERNATT VE GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES = 68
    Conventional Generation Technologies = 68
    Unconventional Generation Technologies = 70
  DESCRIPTION OF CASE STUDIES = 81
  CASE STUDY RESULTS = 83
    Results for Small Conventional Versus Large Conventional Technologies = 83
    Results for Conventional 7ersus Unconventional Technologies = 101
    Centralized Versus Dispersed Dlacement Results = 112
  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS = 126
    Cost-Effectiveness of Small Versus Large Unit Sizes = 126
    Cost-Effectiveness of Conventional Versus Unconventional Technologies = 126
    Cost-Effectiveness of Dispersed Versus Centralized = 126
  REFERENCES = 127
3. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS = 143
  ABSTRACT = 143
  INTRODUCTION = 143
  TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION PLANNING PROCEDURES = 144
    Introduction = 146
    Transmission and Distribution Network Planning = 146
    Load Flow, Short Circuit and Stability Studies = 148
  RELIABILITY EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS = 150
    Introduction = 150
    Aspects of Reliability = 150
    Definition Of System Failure = 150
    Reliability Indices = 151
    Data Requirements = 152
    Reliability Evaluation Methods = 153
  T&D ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS = 156
    Introduction = 156
    Transmission Line Configurations = 156
    Bus Arrangements for HV Substations = 158
    Distribution Substation Design Options = 160
    Distribution Circuit Designs = 161
    Transmission Lines Protective-Relaying = 163
    DC/AC EHV Links = 165
    Power System Control Centers = 168
    Overhead/Underground = 169
    Selection of Voltage Levels for Primary Distribution = 171
    Subtransmission Network Configurations (Radial-Loop) = 172
    Amount and Use of Sectionalizing Capability = 175
    Transmission Interconnections = 175
    Distribution Monitoring and Control = 178
    Distribution Substation Versus Number = 180
    Number of Distribution Feeders Per Substation = 182
    Tie Circuit and Reconfiguration Capabilities = 182
    Transformer Redundancy = 184
    Voltage Control = 184
    Spare Part Inventory = 185
    Portable Substations = 185
    Insulation Levels = 186
    Insulation Types = 186
    Tower, Pole and Conductor Configuration = 187
    Short Circuit Levels = 188
  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS = 190
    Summary T&D Alternatives = 190
    Present Reliability Evaluation Methods = 190
    Future Considerations = 191
  REFERENCES = 192
4. PROCEDURES FOR ASSESSING STRATEGIC RELIABILITY AND POWER SYSTEM VULNERABILITY = 199
  ABSTRACT = 199
  INTRODUCTION = 200
    Nature and Significance of Problem = 200
    Objectives and Scope of Study = 201
    Background of Previous Work = 202
    Organization of Report = 203
  METHODOLOGY = 205
    Strategic Planning Tool = 205
    Detailed Vulnerability Assessment Tool = 206
    Integrated Methodology for Strategic Reliability and Power System Vulnerability = 208
  POTENTIAL DISRUPTION SCENARIOS = 209
  COPING RESPONSES OF NEPOOL IN AN OIL SUPPLY CUTBACK = 213
    Summary of Coping Responses Analysis = 213
    Actions Regulated by Federal and State Laws = 218
    Actions Under NEPOOL's Congrol = 221
    Actions of the State and Regional Authorities = 228
  STRATEGIC RELIABILITY AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF NEPOOL = 230
    Strategic Reliability Analysis of NEPOOL = 230
    Vulnerability Analysis of NEPOOL = 236
  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS = 239
    NEPOOL Coping Responses = 239
    NEPOOL Strategic Reliability = 239
    NEPOOL Vulnerability = 240
    Implication of Study Results for Power Systems Other Than NEPOOL = 240
    Recoimnendations = 241
  REFERENCES = 242
5. ANALYSIS OF BULK POWER SYSTEM FAILURES AND REVIEW OF UTILITY SECURITY AND RESTORATION PROCEDURES = 247
  ABSTRACT = 247
  INTRODUCTION = 247
    Background = 247
    Nature of the Problem = 248
    Purpose = 249
    Approach = 249
  BULK POWER SYSTEM FAILURES = 249
    Fistorical Data = 249
    Analysis and Results = 250
  POWER SYSTEM SECURITY PRACTICES = 257
    Power System Operating States = 258
    Security Functions = 259
    Utility Security Practices = 260
    Adequacy of Security and Restoration Practices = 263
    Improvements in Security Practices = 264
  POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION PRACTICES = 269
    Restoration Program = 269
    Restoration Functions = 270
    Improvements in Restoration Practices in Power System Operations = 276
  IMPLICATIONS OF IMPROVEMENTS IN SECURITY AND RESTORATION PRACTICES = 278
    Generic Problem 1 : Quality of Service Reductions During Electric System Operation = 278
    Generic Problem 2 : Customer Outages Caused by Weather-Related Transmission Outages = 279
    Generic Problem 3 : Customer Outages Caused by Component Failures and Operations of the Transmission Svstem = 280
    Generic Problem 4 : Customer Outages Caused by Generation Component Failures = 281
    General Considerations = 281
  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS = 283
    Conclusions = 283
    Recommendations = 284
  REFERENCES = 285
6. NON-UTILITY MECHANISMS TO MITIGATE SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS RESULTING FROM ELECTRIC POWER INTERRUPTIONS = 291
  ABSTRACT = 291
  INTRODUCTION = 292
    Nature of the Problem = 292
    Background of Previous work = 292
    Purpose of Study = 293
    Method of Study = 294
    Organization of This Report = 296
  IDENTIFICATION OF SOCIOPCONOMIC IMPACTS AND EVALUATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES = 297
    Discussion of Impact = 297
    Evaluation of Mitigation measures = 310
    Survey of Residential Customers = 314
  RECOPIMENDED PROCEDURES = 315
    Community "Blackout" Contingency Planning = 315
    Residential "Blaclzout" Plans = 321
    Commercial "Blackout" Plans = 324
    Auxiliary Power Units = 326
  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS = 329
  REFERENCES AND NOTES = 331
7. THE SHORT-TERM COST OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS = 337
  ABSTRACT = 337
  INTRODUCTION = 337
    Nature of the Problem = 337
    Scope of the Study = 337
    Previous Work = 337
    A Summary of Service Interruption = 340
    Approach Used in This Study = 340
  STRUCTURE OF THE OUTAGE COSTS MODEL = 340
    Utility Service Regions = 340
    Service Interruption Parameters = 340
    Consumer Categories = 340
    Cost Components = 341
    Upper and Lower Bounds = 341
    Outputs of the Model = 341
  INDUSTRIAL SERVICE INTERRUPTION COSTS = 341
    Production Losses = 341
    Added Payroll Cost = 344
    Cleanup and Spoiled Product Cost = 344
    Standby Power Cost = 346
    Agriculture Service Interruption Costs = 346
  COMMERCIAL SERVICE INTERRUPTIONS COSTS = 347
    Sales and Service Losses = 347
    Refrigerated Inventory Spoilage Cost = 349
    Standby Generating Cost = 350
  RESIDENTIAL SERVICE INTERRUPTIONS COSTS = 351
    Calculation of Residential Service Interruption Cost = 352
  SERVICE INTERRUPTION COSTS : RESULTS = 353
    Cost Detail for a Standard Interruption = 353
    Effect of Duration on Service Interruption Costs = 355
    Regional Variation of Outage Costs = 356
    Seasonal Variations in Costs = 356
    Variation of Costs With Time of Day = 356
    Variation of Cost With Day of the Week = 357
  SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS = 357
    Industrial Variable Sensitivity = 358
    Commercial Service Interruption Parameter Sensitivity = 359
    Residential Interruption Parameter Sensitivity = 359
  COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS RESULTS = 359
  REFERENCES = 360
8. SOCIOECONOMIC COSTS OF PROLONGED ELECTRICITY SHORTAGES = 367
  ABSTRACT = 367
  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS = 367
  INTRODUCTION = 367
    Purpose of the Study = 367
    Long-Term Socio-economic Costs on a Regional Basis = 367
    Short-Term Versus Lonq-Term Electric Supply Failures = 368
    Demand Curtailment Planning 368
    The Optimization Model of Demand Curtailment Planning = 370
    Organization of the Report = 371
  THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO COST ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM ELECTRICITY SHORTAGES = 372
    Introduction = 372
    Linear Programming : The Demand Curtailment Context = 372
    Linear Programming : Estimating the Cost of Demand Curtailment = 373
    Model Statement : = 374
    Some Methodological Shortcomings = 375
  ISSUES IN ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY = 376
    Introduction = 376
    Estimating Production Losses = 376
    Wealth Losses = 376
    Modeling the Intangible Costs of Porlonged Electricity Demand Curtailment = 377
    Other Issues = 379
  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS = 380
    Introduction = 380
    Approach = 380
    ECAR = 381
    New England = 393
    SERC = 393
    WSCC = 393
  THE COST OF CURTAILMNT = 397
    LP Model Application - ECAR Region = 397
    Unit Cost of Curtailment for Each Region = 401
  APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY AND INTER-REGIONAL EFFECTS = 406
    Introduction = 406
    Input-Output Mode ls A Brief Description = 406
    The Linear Programming "Optimal" Plan and Secondary Effects = 407
    A General Methodology for Estimating Secondary Effects on Electricity Curtailment = 409
    Alternative Approaciles = 410
  CURTAILMENT IN THE NEW ENGLAND REGION = 411
    Introduction = 411
    The Multiregional Input-Output Model = 411
    Results = 415
    Employment Impacts = 419
    Conclusion = 419
  SOCIOECONOMIC CONSEQUEDICES OF ELECTRICITY DEMAND CURTAILMENT : SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH = 420
    Introduction = 420
    Industrial Data Acquisition = 420
    Secondary and Inter-Regional Socioeconomic Effects of Electricity Demand Curtailment = 420
    Supply Disruptions Extending Beyond Twelve Months = 421
    Conceptual Restructuring of the Demand Curtailment Model = 421
  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION = 422
    Introduction = 422
    Methodological Advantages and Shortcomings = 422
    Implications for Future Work = 422
    Estimates of Socioeconomic Loss = 422
  REFERENCES = 424
9. A SURVEY OF ATTITUDES AND EXPERIENCE RELATING TO ELECTRIC POWER INTERRUPTIONS = 431
  ABSTRACT = 431
  INTRODUCTION = 432
    Nature of the Problem = 432
    Previous Work = 432
    Purpose of the Study = 434
    Method of Study = 434
    Organization of the Report = 434
  SURVEY METHODOLOGY = 435
    Questionnaire Development = 435
    Sample Selection = 435
    Data Collection = 437
    Data Processing and Analysis = 437
    Questionnaire = 437
  DESCRIPTION OF SURVEY RESULTS = 443
    Electric Utility Service = 443
    Experience with Service Interruptions = 445
    mitigation measures for Service Interruptions = 450
    Respondent Characteristics = 452
    An Evaluation of the Detroit Survey Results = 455
    Representativeness of the Sample = 456
  ANALYSIS OF KEY ISSUES = 457
    Electric Utility Dependability and Responsiveness = 457
    Service Interruptions and the Cost of Reliability = 458
    Utility Load Management of Household Appliances = 459
    CONCLUSIONS = 460
    Perception of Electric Utility Service = 460
    Experience With Service Interruptions = 460
    Costs of Outages = 460
    Trade-Offs Between Electricity Costs and Reliability = 460
    Mitigation Me asures = 461
    Perception of Load Management = 461
  REFERENCES = 467
10. DETERMINING APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF GENERATION SYSTEM RELIABILITY = 467
  ABSTRACT = 467
  INTRODUCTION = 468
    Background = 468
    Appropriate Reliability = 469
    Scope of Study = 469
    Study Overview = 470
    Previous Studies = 470
  RELIABILITY EVALUATION = 473
    Reliability Considerations = 473
    Power System Reliability Evaluation - A Brief History = 473
    Reliability Indices = 474
    Reliability Computational Approach = 478
  CONSUMER OUTAGE COSTS = 482
    Coping with Emergencies = 482
    Types of Outages = 482
    Outage Cost Function = 483
    Outage Costing Model = 484
  COSTS OF SUPPLYING RELIABILITY = 486
    Planning Considerations = 486
    Comparing Alternatives = 486
    Generation Expansion Planning = 486
  STUDY RESULTS = 489
    Study Regions = 489
    Study Data = 490
    Costs of Supplying Reliability = 493
    Consequences to Customers = 498
    Appropriate Levels of Reliability = 500
  CONCLUSIONS = 504
    Reliability Evaluation = 504
    Outage Costs and Curtailment Strategies = 504
    Appropriate Levels of Reliability = 504
  REFERENCES = 505
APPENDICES
  A. LOAD AND GENERATION UNCERTAINTY = 513
  B. COMPARISION OF SERVICE INTEPRUPTIONS COST STUDIES = 521
  C. 1wrTIACT OF LARGE SCALE FIT-RL CUPPLY DISRUPTIONS ON REGIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PPLIABILITY = 535
  D. RELIABILITY EFFECTS OF THE 1980 FLORIDA CONSERVATION ACT = 553

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