The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilized by insects
- The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilized by insects /
- Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988
- xv, 214 p.: ill.; 25 cm
- (Theworks of Charles Darwin; v. 17)
- Spine title: Fertilization of orchids.
- ISBN 081471806X: $95.00
- 듀이십진분류법-> 584/.15041662
- Orchids -- Reproduction. Pollination by insects.
Introduction = [1-5] 1
CHAPTER Ⅰ Ophreae
Structure of the flower of Orchis mascula-Power of movement of the pollinia-Perfect adaptation of the parts in Orchis pyramidalis-Other species of Orchis and of some closely allied genera-On the insects which visit the several species, and on the frequency of their visits-On the fertility and sterility of various orchids-On the secretion of nectar, and on insects being purposely delayed in obtaining it [6-44] = 5
CHAPTER Ⅱ Ophreae continued
Fly and Spider Ophrys-bee Ophrys, apparently adapted for perpetual self-fertilization, but with paradoxical contrivances for intercrossing-Herminium monorchis, attachment of the pollinia to the front legs of insects-Peristylus viridis, fertilization indirectly effected by nectar secreted from three parts of the labellum-Gymnadenia conopsea, and other species-Habenaria or Platanthera chlorantha and bifolia, their pollinia attached to the eyes of Lepidoptera-Other species of Habenaria-Bonatea-Disa-Summary on the powers of movement in the pollinia [45-79] = 31
CHAPTER Ⅲ Arethuseae
Cephalanthera grandiflora : rostelum aborted : early penetration of the pollen-tubes : case of imperfect self-fertilization : cross- fertilization effected by insects which gnaw the labellum-Cephalanthera ensifolia-Pogonia-Pterostylis and other Australian orchids with the labellum sensitive to a touch-Vanila-Sobralia [80-92] = 56
CHAPTER Ⅳ Neotteae
Epipactis palustris : curious shape of the labellum and its importance in the fructification of the flower-other species of Epipactis-Epipogium-Goodyera repens-Spiranthes autumnalis : perfect adaptation by which the pollen of a younger flower is carried to the stigma of an older flower on another plant-Listera ovata : sensitiveness of the rostellum : explosion of viscid matter : action of insects : perfect adaptation of the several organs-Listera cordata-Neottia nidus-avis : its fertilization effected in the same manner as in Listera-Thelymitra, self-fertile [93-127] = 65
CHAPTER Ⅴ Malaxeae and Epidendreae
Malaxis paludosa-Masdevallia, curious closed flowers-Bolbophyllum, labellum kept in constant movement by every breath of air-Dendrobium, contrivance for self- fertilization-Cattleya, simple manner of fertilization-Epidendrum-Self-fertile Epidendreae [128-48] = 90
CHAPTER Ⅵ Vandeae
Structure of the column and pollinia-Importance of the elasticity of the pedicel : its power of movement-Elasticity and strength of the caudicles-Calanthe with lateral stigmas, manner of fertilization-Angraecum sesquipedale, wonderful length of nectary-Species with the entrance into the stigmatic chamber much contracted, so that the pollen-masses can hardly be inserted-Coryanthes, extraordinary manner of fertilization [149-77] = 105
CHAPTER Ⅶ Vandeae continued-Catasetidae
Catasetidae. the most remarkable of all orchids-the mechanism by which the pollinia of Catasetum are ejected to a distance and are transported by insects-Sensitiveness of the horns of the rostellum-Extraordinary difference in the male, female, and hermaphrodite forms of Catasetum tridentatum-Mormodes ignea, curious structure of the flowers : ejection of the pollinia-Mormodes luxata-Cycnoches ventricosum, manner of fertilization [178-225] = 125
CHAPTER Ⅷ Cypripedeae-homologies of the flowers of orchids
Cypripedium. differs much from all other orchids-Labellum in the form of a slipper with two small orifices by which insects can escape-Manner of fertilization by small bees of the genus Andrena-Homological nature of the several parts of the flowers of the Orchideae-Wonderful amount of modification which they have undergone [226-46] = 159
CHAPTER Ⅸ Gradation of organs, etc-Concluding remarks
Gradation of organs, of the rostellum, of the pollen-masses-Formation of the caudicle-Genealogical affinities-Secretion of nectar-Mechanism of the movement of the pollinia-Uses of the petals-Production of seed-Importance of trifling details of structure-Cause of the great diversity of structure in the flowers of orchids-Cause of the perfection of the contrivances-Summary on insect-agency-Nature abhors perpetual self- fertilization [247-93] = 174
INDEX [294-300] = 207
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